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Separation of Milk Fat by Centrifugal Force

Separation of Milk Fat by Centrifugal Force 

Cream Separators and Structure 

Cream separators are generally designed to perform both cleaning and cream separation at the same time. They can also include systems that standardize milk to the desired fat ratio. This type of separators, which can perform all clarification, separation and standardization processes, are called universal separators. The most important feature that distinguishes cream separators from cleaning separators is that the conical bowls arranged on top of each other are perforated inside the body. A channel is formed by overlapping the holes and milk fat (cream), which has a lighter density than milk, is separated from this channel. In other words, while the milk fat moves towards the centre, the heavier skimmed milk is thrown outwards with the effect of centrifugal force. 

Cream separators are examined in three groups as open type, semi-closed (semi-hermetic) type and hermetic type separators according to the way the milk is delivered to the separator. 

Open Type Separators 

These types of separators, which do not have much use today, are designed quite simply and their technology is quite old. Here, the entrance of the milk to the separator can be open, as well as the output of cream and skimmed milk is open. their cream separation their capacity is more suitable for small scale enterprises or dairy farms. The use of these separators, which work by hand or with a simple electric motor, is at the laboratory level. found in research. 

Semi Closed Type Separators 

In this type of separators, milk enters from the hollow shaft in the center at atmospheric pressure; The cream and skimmed milk obtained after the separation process comes out of the closed pipelines with an increased pressure. Discharge of the separator sludge is done manually. being carried out. In other words, after the separator is stopped, the drum is disassembled, the separator sludge is discharged, and the parts are reassembled after they are cleaned and dried. However, there are also semi-closed separators where the separator sludge is thrown automatically. Cream separation in semi-closed separators is carried out briefly as follows. Fatty milk enters from the upper part of the separator with atmospheric pressure and reaches the distributor. The milk flows into the conical bowls (discs) and in the channels parallel to the rotation axis formed by the holes on the bowls. is rising. At the same time, it spreads as a thin film in the spaces formed by the bowls with a distance of 0.5-1.0 mm between them, that is, between the bowls. Meanwhile, milk is divided into two parts, cream and skim milk. As mentioned before, while the lighter fat globules move towards the centre, the heavier skimmed milk is thrown outwards to form a suitable circle on the inner surface of the separator body. The cream rising from the gap on the inner edge of the bowls rises to the cream outlet pipe over the cream holder. the drum by passing through the space between the bowls. Skimmed milk coming to the lower compartment reaches the skimmed milk outlet between the drum cover and the separator disc. The milk entering the separator at atmospheric pressure, reaches a maximum in the inner circumference of the drum. reaches pressure. Therefore, when semi-open separators are used, the pressure is converted to normal pressure with the help of a special pump placed at the separator outlet. 

Closed (Hermetic) Type Separators 

In this type of separators, the milk is always fed under pressure in a closed system. Here, milk is fed into the separator from the bottom and the middle of the separator with the help of the main drive shaft, which is opened in the form of a channel. The centrifugal pump located under the shaft gives the desired pressure to the milk. During operation, the inside of this separator is completely filled with milk so that there is no air left. The pressure created by the pump maintains a sufficient flow resistance until the separator outlet. Cream separation is carried out as above.

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